Archive for October, 2009

This Bud’s For You

Posted in Cultural Matters, Playthell on politics with tags , , on October 23, 2009 by playthell


 Firing up some high grade bud in the Land of the Flowers


It’s Time to End the Anti-Marajuana Laws

Anti-Marijuana laws are a tyranny of the majority!  Hence the announcement by Attorney General Eric Holder that the federal government will no longer prosecute providers and users of marijuana for medicinal purposes, in states where such use is legal, comes as welcome news indeed.  However it is at best an awkward half step in reaching a final solution to the problem of marijuana use as a law enforcement issue.

 To put it succinctly, it is like applying a band aid to a cancerous sore.   The devil here really is in the details.   First of all trying to distinguish who is smoking marijuana for medical reasons and who is smoking because it enriches their spiritual life – like Rastafarians for instance – or who is smoking for the pure pleasure of it, will certainly prove an impossible nightmare!

 The seeds of failure are embedded in this approach.  For instance the Feds have stated that vigorous prosecutions will continue to be directed against those who deal marijuana for profit, because they are the main source of income for the murderous Mexican cartels.  This is true, hence the tragedy here is that this policy will fuel the cartel’s enterprises in the US: The more dangerous the traffic becomes the higher the price of the product, thus the greater the profits.  That’s the way the market works.

The only way to end this is to legalize marijuana completely with no more controls than those on tobacco – a really deadly vice!  Anything short of this will not end the horrendous street crime and official corruption associated with the illegal trafficking in this euphoria inducing plant.  And there isn’t enough jail cells in America to imprison everybody who will continue to smoke this wondrous weed not matter what the law says!

 I am no novice on the drug issue; I have given much thought to the question of recreational drug use and once won an award for accuracy and honesty in drug reporting when I was a columnist at the Daily News.  The Tom Focade Award is presented by “High Times” magazine, the preeminent authority on recreational drug use.

My  opinions on the matter are grounded in serious research among scientists and medical professionals devoted to treatment and cures for drug addiction – but a great deal of my research was conducted employing a time honored anthropological method: The participant observer.

No one understands better than the Times editors how much hypocritical nonsense surrounds the issue of recreational drug use: Especially marijuana smoking!  And they agreed with the analysis and conclusions of my News columns: Anti-Marijuana laws are anti-democratic and represent a tyranny of the majority that Alexis de Tocqueville warned us would happen if the rights of minorities are not protected.

The Marajuana laws are the source of the violent crimes associated with drug use, thus they cannot be the solution, and Marijuana is far less dangerous to our health and spiritual well being than alcohol and tobacco consumption.  The legalization of marijuana would address two of these problems immediately, and contribute to a solution for the destructive practice of alcohol consumption by providing a safer way to get high!


Some High grade bud!

  “Cannabis Sativa,” as the botanist call it, has a long and honorable history. As near as I have been able to discover after years of detective work, Marijuana was first cultivated by ancient Hindu sages over three thousand years ago.  Their towering wisdom is verified by the names they gave it: “The Poor Man’s Heaven” and “The Heavenly Guide.”  The Jamaicans, who have a flourishing Marijuana cultivating and smoking culture, call the herb “Ganga,” a word of obvious Indian origin.

And from my years of investigating the affects of smoking this marvelous weed – the “joy weed” that the prophet Abraham is said to have smoked before he had his transcendental experiences that produced prophetic visions – I’d say the Hindu wise men were never wiser than when they named the Ganga.  It is a little noted fact – both by the mainstream media as well as the anti-marijuana fanatics – that some of the most brilliant personalities of our times have been avid herb smokers.

 Astronomer and Television Star Carl Sagan


 A Brilliant Scientist and Avid Herb Smoker

Among the self-confessed pot heads are the great astronomer Carl Sagan.  Writing in the 1969 book, Marijuana Reconsidered, under the alias “Mr. X”, Sagan wrote the following testimony on his experience smoking herb:

When I’m high I can penetrate into the past, recall childhood memories, friends, relatives, playthings, streets, smells, sounds, and tastes from a vanished era. I can reconstruct the actual occurrences in childhood events only half understood at the time. Many but not all my cannabis trips have somewhere in them a symbolism significant to me which I won’t attempt to describe here, a kind of mandala embossed on the high. Free-associating to this mandala, both visually and as plays on words, has produced a very rich array of insights.”  We know that Mr. X was actually Carl Sagan because he later confessed it, after his stature in the scientific world had grown beyond reproach.

The brilliant novelist Norman Mailer, one of the greatest writers of the twentieth century often turned to the  “Heavenly Guide” for inspiration.  I know this because he told me so.  From our first encounter we fired up some bush.  It was the day of the second Ali Norton fight and I was dabbling in the boxing business at the time.  Driving uptown on  the Avenue of The America’s I was caught by the red light at 50th Street.

I was driving a classic car – a white Duisenberg in fact, and I had just got it hand washed causing the silver chrome piping that ran into the engine to glisten in the mid-afternoon sun.  All of a sudden I saw this short graying white man in a trench coat stop in front of the car as he was crossing the street and bow down as if genuflecting before the golden calf of Mammon.  Had he not performed such a dramatic gesture I probably would never have looked at him closely enough to notice who he was – what with all the beautiful stylish ladies all about, eye candy galore.

 Norman Mailer



Even after I got a good look at him I still couldn’t believe it was him – although I have since learned that when you see somebody in Manhattan who looks like somebody famous they usually are. I got so excited without thinking I jumped out of the car and blurted out:” Dam if you don’t look just like Norman Mailer!”   He smiled his slightly devilish smile and said “I should look like Norman mailer because I am Norman Mailer.”

I proceeded to tell him what an unexpected honor it was to meet him because I considered him one of the great writers in the English language.  He seemed genuinely surprised that I knew who he was because I didn’t look like the literary type at the moment.  I asked him where he was going and if I could give him a ride, and he said “Really, well I was heading over to the Upper East  Side.”  I bade him hop into my dream machine and away we went.

My Fly Ride 

And Away We Went!

Since I had recently see him in a television interview where he talked about how smoking reefer fired his imagination, and his love for boxing was well known – he had even gone to the gym and trained with the World Light-Heavy Weight Champion Jose Torres – I engaged him in a conversation about the much anticipated Ali-Norton rematch and then offered him a joint of some El Primo High Grade Sensemillah  bud straight out of Humboldt County in Northern California.

I told him that I saw the TV interview and he relaxed and fired up.  I ducked into Central Park at 59th street and we cruised uptown.  The conversation soon turned to politics and literature, after a while he got high and was just staring at me as I was discussing Shakespeare’s use of color symbolism – A topic I later published an extensive essay on titled: “Did Shakespeare Intend Othello

To Be Black?  A Meditation on Blacks and the Bard,” which can be read in the Anthology “Othello: New Essays By Black Writers” edited by the distinguished Indian Shakespeare scholar Dr. Mathili Kaul, and published by Howard University Press.  Suddenly Mailer said to me, who are you? It’s confusing: You talk like a professor but you look like a gangster!”  It was a funny question, because he was obviously smashed from the dynamite weed.

The father of Jazz – America’s great contribution to world culture – Louis “Pops” Armstrong, was also an herbalist. And George Washington, the father of our Republic – smoked herb too, only he referred to it as “smoking hemp.”   One would be hard put, in fact it would be a fool’s errand, to try and find a more impressive group of men anywhere in the modern world!


Pop’s Armstrong: Longtime Pothead


 He Invented and Art Form that Captured the World!

It is no wonder the Rastafarians – a Jamaican religious order who use Cannabis Sativa as a holy sacrament – call it “Wisdom Weed!”    


Wisdom Weed

 Wisdom weed II

Simply Heavenly!

My attitude toward anti-marijuana statutes is conditioned more than any thing else by the fact that I strongly believe the laws against smoking wisdom Weed to be a misuse of the police power of the state that could be better utilized fighting serious crimes; and the legal doctrine that justifies it is a perversion of the ideal of democracy.

In the world famous two volume treatise Democracy in America, written by the brilliant French social philosopher Alexis de Tocqueville in 1830,  the author predicts that American style democracy was ever in danger of degenerating into a mere “tyranny of the majority” if the rights of unpopular minorities were not protected in the laws.

As a black person in America I and my ancestors have always lived under the tyranny of the majority; we were living under a tyranny of the majority when de Tocqueville wrote his great work.  After all, most black Americans were held in chattel slavery in the south, and the perceptive Frenchman noted that: “Hatred of the black race seems strongest in the northern states that have abolished slavery.”

Hence, having lived under the tyranny of the majority due to my race, I now refuse to bow down to a tyranny of the ridiculous old fools who abuse their power by outlawing the smoking of Wisdom Weed – and who may now be the majority only in power and influence.

Aside from the sheer pleasure of it all – it’s no coincidence that medical doctors specializing in sexual dysfunction, whose minds are not fettered by false doctrines,  routinely prescribe this wonderful weed to help stimulate desire.  And there are proven medical benefits for people suffering from serious afflictions such as: Cancer, Muscular dystrophy, Aids, glaucoma, etc.

However aside from polemics about personal liberty and the medicinal properties of Cannabis Sativa, I return to the the undeniable fact that the main reason for the drug wars in Mexico, which are increasingly spilling over in the towns and cities of the US, is the anti-marijuana laws.

 Yet from the talk emanating from our newly minted Secretary of Homeland Defense, Janet Napolitano, the rum drinkers just don’t get it!  No amount of police power – short of turning the country into a fascist police state – will successfully suppress the marijuana trade.

All repressive measures do, aside from raising the price of weed, is attract a more ruthless element to the trade as risk increases and the commodity becomes more valuable.  It is the ultimate folly, as that term is defined by historian Barbara Tuchman in her thoughtful and learned book, The March of Folly – which a concept she employs to describe the behavior of leaders who pursue a policy that all the observable facts suggests is against the nation’s interest!

Hence for all these reasons and more, I shall smoke the Wisdom Weed until my dying day.  In fact, I intend to take a toke of the high grade just before I dance and join the ancestors.  So to those who would profane their high office and subvert the quest for a true democracy by abusing the power of the state passing repressive laws designed to prevent me from taking a toke, I have some parting words.

I have purposely chosen doggerel because I think such scurrilous scoundrels unworthy of poetry.  Low verse is their just dessert: “The winds may blow / the trees on high / The bees may kiss the butterflies / The sparkling Champaign may kiss the glass /but all you silly mother fuckers can kiss my ass!




 Playthell G. Benjamin

Commentaries On the Times

Harlem, New York 

Friday the 13th, March 2009


Another Open Letter To Rush Limbaugh

Posted in On Right Wing Pundits and Bloviators, Playthell on politics with tags , , , , , , on October 22, 2009 by playthell



The Philosopher king of the Untutored Mob


Yo Rushbo!

  I was sitting here at my table working on a book when I saw your rotund figure on television exclaiming that the President’s response to the unlawful arrest of Skip Gates – my friend and the most distinguished Academic in America – was “a black militant response!”  You also said that “agents of Barack Obama and Sonia Sotomayor” had attacked the poor white fireman in New Haven” and now white policeman are under attack from the “East Wing of the White House.”  Although I know you are a meglo-maniacal know nothing who will do most anything to boost your ratings and stay in the news, I was still shocked at this rancid incendiary rhetoric.

The more I hear from you the more several things become crystal clear: You are totally without any sense of decency or responsibility; you are not deeply committed to anything beyond gratification of your enormous appetites, which obviously dominate your life; You are embarrassingly ignorant and unread; you will say anything to keep your ratings up; you care nothing for the poor white saps who are so devoid of self esteem or real knowledge about the world that they self-identify as “Ditto Heads.”  Which means that they rubber stamp anything you say. 

You are their philosopher king Rush.  And if there were enough of them, I’d bet my bottom dollar they would put you in charge of the country.  Thank goodness they are a small fraction of the American population, and they are obviously the dumbest.  It is hard to tell if this is tragedy or farce.  After all, Senator Al Franken was right about you: You are a big fat idiot!  Hence in you we find the tragic-comic absurdity of the jabbering jester as philosopher king

Yet every time I attempt to dismiss you as an inconsequential fool, I remember what the great American film maker Frank Capra says about how Adolph Hitler and Benito Mussolini looked like cartoon characters to military film makers at the onset of World War II.  Tasked with making ant-Axis propaganda films for the US Army, Capra said their work was complicated by the fact that Hitler looked like the great silent movie comic actor Charlie Chaplin, and Benito looked like he was having a fit, with all of his over the top dramatic gestures.  And we know how dangerous these two jokers turned out to be.  The problem was how do you get people to recognize the danger of two guys who looked and behaved like cartoon characters.

So I recognize the fact that because you look like W.C.Fields on dope, and talk like a professional fool, does not mean you aren’t  dangerous. Talk radio is a powerful medium because it comes right into your ear and you can listen while you are doing something else.  So people who drive around all day can listen to you.  Although frankly, anyone who would rather listen to you everyday rather than the musical fare radio offers – from Bach to the blues – probably suffers from some sort of intellectual deficit and is emotionally disturbed. 

These lost benighted souls turn to you for what amounts to therapy or catharsis alas, and you repay them with the equivalent of intellectual junk food, the kind of stuff that’s devoid of spiritual nutrition, ingredients that can enrich their lives and lift them to a higher plane.  Everything you do is designed to bring out the worse in them and cannot possibly lead them to viable solutions to their problems. Another thing we can assume about your audience given the time of day you are on the air: They are not the people who are running this country, and in all probability they don’t hold a job that requires serious attention at all.  Hence they are far from the brightest bulbs in the box.  Not many Ivy League grads there.

In fact Rush, they are the same kinds of people that Hitler and Mussolini appealed to. But the Nazi experience is most instructive in your case, because interestingly enough the Italian fascist movement was not anti-semitic in the beginning. In fact there is evidence that Mussolini thought Hitler was a nut on the Jewish question, after all, as the Jewish Historian Lenni Brenner has shown, there were Jews among the founding members of the Italian fascist movement.  Hence the centrality of racism to the Nazi project makes it resemble the American experience more than the Italian.  And for good reason: Most of the Nazi ideas about race came from here, as David Blaine has shown.

It is well know by serious students of the rise of the Third Reich in Germany that the most important vehicle for transporting the German nation from a leader in science, philosophy and art music to a nation of barbarians capable of murdering six million of their countrymen was the way Dr. Goebbles employed talk radio to incite the untutored mob by convincing them that all of their problems were caused by the Jews. 

The fact is that Germany’s problems at the time were mostly caused by the Armistice conditions set in the Versailles Treaty of 1919, under which the Germans were punished for starting World War I.  Just like the present economic crisis is the result of misbegotten Republican military adventures and economic incompetence.  But to listen to you, and your Republican partners in crime like Patty Buchanan,  one would think the problems of the white working class are caused by black and Hispanic people!

I confess that I am at a lost to understand what your end game is Rush.  Do you want to start a race war in America?  Well in spite of many similarities, this is not Weimar Germany.  For one thing a black man sits in the White house and there is a black man sitting in the Attorney General’s office who controls the federal police forces.  Hence if any of your brown shirt ditto heads attempt a beer hall putch they will be crushed by the strong arm of the state, just as Hitler was.  But unlike in Germany they will get no second act in America Today.  You came along too late Rush; the best you are going to accomplish with your version of Operation Helter Skelter is to incite some poor dumb rednecks to murder ala Charles Mansion.  You appeal to the most backward and unstable elements in white society, the genuine failures who are looking for a scapegoat to explain away the fact that they are white men without wealth or power in a land set up for them to make it.

It’s not surprising that you understand this lunatic fringe of losers, because in your heart you must say: “There but for the grace of God go I.”  For no one knows better than you that without the gift of gab and talent for buffoonery you would be one of their number; your history in broadcasting attest to this possibility.  You were on your way to failure in the broadcast industry when you stumbled upon the angry white guy routine and things turned around.  And I am convinced that it is the desire for money and adulation that motivates you.  And the struggles of the poor dumb peckerwoods that you fleece of their emotional energy and affections matter little to you except as a body count for Arbitron ratings.  That’s how your bread is buttered, and from the look of things we can surmise that you consume a mighty share of it.

I fully understand that given the fact that you are a big fat idiot this conversation is way above your head – after all, your success with the untutored mob is a function of the fact that you are not much smarter than your listeners.  It is a classic case of the blind leading the blind.  Yet I feel compelled to pull your coat to a couple of things, and as with much of what I have said here this too is intended to enlighten a wider audience.   First off, even if skip Gates had shouted at the cops and told them to “get tha fuck outta here” after he showed them his Harvard I.D. and Drivers License they should have got tha fuck out! 

Cops are public servants not our masters.  The reason we have constitutional protections against “unreasonable search and seizure” is to protect American citizens against the arbitrary abuse of police powers exercised by the occupying British Redcoats during colonial times.  In fact all of our constitutional rights were created in response the tyrannical practices of the British crown!   But since you recently confused the Constitution with the Declaration of Independence I don’t expect you to understand any of this.  Still, ignorance of the constitution is no excuse.

 The second point I must make before ending this letter is: President Obama’s response to the Abuse of the police powers of the state in violating the soverign rights of a citizen was measuered and reasonable in the extreme.  A black militant would have said: “This is just another example of how racist peckerwood pigs behave when dealing with black people.  These pussies are being driven mad with penis envy – just like that fat dumb ass motherfucker Rush Limbaugh.  All of them racist crackers can kiss my ass!  As far as I’m concerned They are all a bunch of paleface blue eyed Devils just like the Honorable Elijah Muhammad taught us.  They are evil by nature so what can we expect.  But Allah is going to bring these evil  cracker mother fuckers to their knees soon, because we are living in the last days and time and Amerikka is going down just like Babylon!  In the mean time I urge my brothers and sister to buy guns just like the whiteys are doing… and if one of those pale ugly no-lip booty-less devils put their hands on you put their ass six feet under!!!”   that’s how black militants talk Rush. 

 In truth Barack Obama’s statement was measured and milquetoast; just like virtually all of the black commentators who are given prominence as spokesman on black issues on the tube.  If I didn’t have first hand knowledge of how black commentators are selected in white controlled media I would be scratching my head and wondering where they find these guys.  But let me be clear Rush, all though you are far too dumb to dig it: none of the people whom you and other right wing white hysterics call the far left of the Democratic party are what you say they are.  I am a life long Democrat – a Yellow Dog Democrat in fact – and I represent the far left of the Democratic party.  And I’m not nearly as nice as the people you continuously slander.  I hope you die the death of a polecat and stink your way to hell!  Now that’s how we roll.



Playthell Benjamin

Fall 2009

Venus Rising

Posted in On Sports! on October 22, 2009 by playthell



Venus in Orange


Power and Grace!


She came into the Wimbledon Games, one of the most prestigious events in sports, rated number 14 in the world. Many commentators on the tennis game openly questioned whether she could still compete seriously for a grand slam title, the most coveted prize in the game.  Others thought that whatever talent Venus had left would be eclipsed by the brilliant play of her sister Serena, who had dominated the woman’s game for the past few years.  However Serena, who came into the tournament ranked # 4 in the world but badly out of shape, was blown out by Jill Craybas in straight sets early in the competition. 

But Venus, following the example of the bumble bee who doesn’t know that according to the science of Aerodynamics he isn’t suppose to fly so he flies anyway, humiliated her little sister’s conquerors by crushing Jill Craybas in straight sets, 6-2 6-0, and dethroning the reigning champion Maria Sharapova in a one sided match where the tall Russian often looked like she just wanted to get away. Then Venus went on to play a historic match against Lindsay Davenport, at over two and a half hours the longest women’s championship in Wimbledon history, and emerged the Wimbledon Champion for the third time. A magnificent feat against the #1 rated women’s player in the world.

The competition was grand between these two California girls who have played each other 27 times, and the sportsmanship was of the highest order.  Eschewing the perversion of the ideal of sport as envisioned by the Greeks in the ancient Olympiad and once taught to American athletes in the venerable adage “It’s not whether you win or lose but how you play the game that counts,” an ideal revered in the US before it was replaced by Vince Lombardi’s vulgar dictum: “Winning is the only thing!”  Fortunately the attitude now so prevalent in professional football – a game that, like “The Star Spangled Banner” symbolizes the warmongering character of the US – has not totally captured the elite women’s tennis game. 

Thus at the end of the hard fought match that Lindsay came close to winning in straight sets, but was skillfully robbed by the indomitable Venus, she was a paragon of grace in defeat, embracing Venus warmly at the net and showering her with compliments in later interviews.  “I felt she deserved it.  She fought hard; she played well,” Said the gracious Davenport.  Venus was no less gracious in victory.  Although she literally jumped for joy after her incredible victory, Venus humbly observed “Lindsay played so well, so many times I was playing to save the match.”  Then this magnificent athlete, who the smart money had counted out, observed “You don’t know what life will throw at you.  I’m just happy when the sun comes up every day.”  Many observers thought that this statement was inspired by the recent murder of her sister in Compton, her old neighborhood, where she learned the game on glass strewn courts while on the lookout for stray bullets.



Venus Triumphant!


So I say hats off to the marvelous Venus, a woman whose grace and beauty reminds me of a thoroughbred mare my grandfather owned when I was a boy in Florida.  Her name was ”Blackout,” inspired by her gleaming ebony coat.  I consider equines to be the most beautiful of all the animals, and Blackout was among the most beautiful of the species.  She was tall, beautifully built, designed for speed and power, and graceful beyond words.  When eloquence and high intelligence is added, this sounds like a perfect description of Venus Williams, Olympic Champion and Queen of Wimbledon.  While the sports pundits were putting her down Venus was rising, and success is always the best revenge.  I can hardly wait to see her when she brings her game to the US Open.

Playthell Benjamin

Harlem New York

July 6, 2005

Deep In Our Hearts

Posted in Cultural Matters, Playthell on politics on October 21, 2009 by playthell

Deep in Our Hearts  


Nine White Women Remember Their Days In the Civil Rights Movemen


While reading “Deep In Our Hearts: Nine White Women In The Freedom Movement,” I was reminded of a conference I attended in 1966. It was held at Dillard University in New Orleans, and was organized by some elements within SNCC who were interested in moving the organization toward a Black Nationalist position.  The presentations were given by intellectuals and artists who were in the forefront of the black consciousness movement.  Some – such as Sterling Stuckey, John Hendrik Clarke, and Me – would become pioneers in the development of Black Studies in major white universities.  It was an inspirational event with much discussion of African and African American history and some members of The Free Southern Theater gave a rendition of Margaret Walkers epic poem “For My People,” that energized our souls. 

 We were happy and nappy and gloried in our blackness. Some of the SNCC members, like the black and beautiful Carol Rivers, had come in from Loundes county Alabama, where she was working with Stokely Carmichael – who later became Kwame Toure – building the original Black Panther Party.  I cannot remember if Bob Moses was there, but I distinctly remember a Mississippi contingent composed of native folk and SNCC organizers who all spoke of him as if he were a warrior saint.  It was not long after this meeting before all white organizers were purged from the ranks of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee.

 At the time, coming as I did from the big northern city of Philadelphia – after having been driven out of my hometown, St. Augustine Florida, by an intolerable racist social order – I felt no bond with the whites who had come into the deep south as SNCC organizers, risking life and limb to struggle side by side with local blacks against the myriad injustices of the southern caste system which was the foundation of white supremacy. My experiences with whites – in the segregated south, the military, the work place, and Philadelphia CORE – was such that it seemed perfectly reasonable, indeed long past time, for black folks to purge whites from the ranks of their liberation organizations.

Since I didn’t know any of these whites – having left the south in 1960 – I had no empathy for their plight.  In fact, it wasn’t until people began to debate the morality and tactical wisdom of the expulsion of white organizers from SNCC, a decade or so later, that I began to try and imagine what the experience might have been like and wonder what became of those stalwart altruistic whites who risked so much in the Freedom Movement with blacks. 

For anyone who has wondered about these matters, “Deep In Our Hearts” is a must read.  Much has been written about race and gender relations in the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, and why the whites left.  But this revelatory text sets the record straight and exposes the flaws which, when taken together, proves fatal for the conventional wisdom on this subject by exposing a lot of inaccurate historical speculation. If it had done nothing more than set the record straight about the relations between men and women in the movement, and finally dispel the lingering misunderstanding about the statement attributed to Stokely Carmichael  – “The position of women in the movement is Prone”  – by the women he said it to, and who only speak of him with much love and respect, this book would have made and invaluable contribution to our understanding of how SNCC held together and conducted it’s magnificent work, blacks and whites struggling together in the most dangerous areas of the deep south during a time when rabid redneck racists believed they had a license to kill anybody who challenged white supremacy.

Stolely Carimichael

Stokely Carimichael Stokely

  A Fearless Freedom Fighter and Intrepid Organizer

All nine of these heroic women – Penny Patch, Casey Hayden, Constance Curry, Joan C. Browning, Theresa Del Pozzo, Dorothy Dawson Burlage, Sue Thrasher, Elaine Delott Baker, and Emmie Schrader Adams – were well educated and could surely have lived a comfortable middle class life in white American without ever giving a thought to the black struggle for freedom.  In the book’s preface they tell us “These are our stories of the costly times we wouldn’t have missed for the world.  We speak to several questions: why us? Why did we, of all the white women growing up in our hometowns, cross the color line in the days of segregation and join the Southern Freedom Movement of the sixties?  How did we find our way?  What happened to us there? How did we leave and what did we take with us? And, especially, what was it like?” 

 And they answer: “One of us was expelled from college for going to a black church, and another was the first white woman in a rural SNCC voter registration project.  One of us paid SNCC’s phone bill in the early days with foundation money given for more conservative purposes, and others organized white southern students in support of the freedom movement.  Some of us where there from the beginning, sitting in with our friends and on the Freedom Ride to Albany, Georgia.  We were also there later, canvassing for voter registration and facing the violence it incurred…All of us experienced the joy of lifting our voices to sing freedom songs, and the fellowship and hope of an interracial movement for justice and equality.” 

 Set forth with titles that capture the bittersweet poetry of struggle – “Shiloh Witness,” “Truths Of The Heart,”  “The Feel Of A Blue Note,” “Sweet Tea At Shoneys,”  “Circle Of Trust,”  “Wild Geese To The Past,” etc – the memoirs that comprise this book are amazingly candid. Whether they are talking about their lives before, during or after they joined the movement.  Since these women are of my generation I find the descriptions of their communities and families, as well as the schools they attended and what attracted them to the movement especially fascinating. It evokes a lot of precious memories from my own life, and fills in a lot of blanks about my white contemporaries. 

 These valiant women hailed from all over the country and were motivated by a wide range of beliefs. “We are very different: southern and northern; rural and urban; state university and Ivy League; middle class, working class and poor.  We were moved to our radical activities in various ways: by Marxism, Christian existentialism, and immigrant folk wisdom; by our grandmothers and the Constitution; by Thoreau and Dumas; by living in a Kibbutz and by African freedom fighters; and by a deep south upbringing.”

 Theresa Del Pozzo came from an Italian ghetto in the north Bronx, a community that bordered on the neighborhood in which Stokely grew up.  But due the barriers of race their families lived in different worlds.  And when there was a racial conflict between some whites from Del Pozzo’s neighborhood and some nearby blacks, while she was working in the movement down south, she and Stokely observed that those Bronx Italians were as much the enemy of Afro-American aspirations as the whites in Mississippi! 

 This is an important observation because most white northerners now pretend that the race problem in America – whether chattel slavery or de-jure discrimination has been an exclusively southern problem.  But the racist Alabama Governor George Wallace proved that this was not so when he ran for President, and Malcolm X was fond of pointing out: “If you are south of the Canadian border you’re south!” Surely the experience of Emmie Schrader Adams gives abundant support to this view. 

 Emmie tells us how black folks first entered her consciousness when a friend of her mother’s moved to her hometown, St. Paul Minnesota, from St. Louis Missouri and “told a story that stuck in my mind about Negroes, long, long lines of them, trying to integrate a white swimming pool I had this image of those scary long lines of Negroes stretching across wide fields, all walking to the swimming pool, and somehow made the connection that this was what had caused this family, with their three little daughters to immigrate to the north.  It was the mid 1950s.  About St. Paul Negroes I knew nothing. There was a black community somewhere beyond our little old church, but I was not allowed to go there.  Nor where we allowed to go to certain movie theaters because, I later learned, they were near the black neighborhood.” 

 Unlike the uneducated working class Italians that populated Theresa Del Pozzo’s neighborhood, Adam’s German-American father was a lawyer, but he was just the kind of paranoid bigot that would swell the ranks of the far right.  “In the McCarthy era he was convinced that there were twenty thousand communists at the University of Minnesota…My father, with his warped outlook though that Margaret Sanger, the founder of Planned Parenthood, was a communist.”  Hence when she became interested in the black freedom struggle, going first to Africa – where she witnessed revolutionary struggles in Kenya and Algeria – then winding up finally in Mississippi, her father became an informer for the FBI. 

 In fact, she was to later learn that it was he who told them that she was “part of a Negro communist spy ring.”  Yet in spite of their Lilly white backgrounds and elite educations – Del Pozzo at the University of Wisconsin and Adams at Harvard-Radcliffe – they both ended up risking their lives in the black Freedom movement and marrying black men.  Adams married a Jamaican and moved to that Island nation where she wrote a definitive book on Jamaican Patois, and Del Pozzo wedded the legendary Jazz guitarist Kenny Burrell.

While Adams and Del Pozzo were northerners, Casey Hayden and Joan C. Browning were native southerners.  And they were involved with the black Freedom Movement from the very beginning of the sixties.  Browning and Hayden was on the Freedom Ride to Albany Georgia in 1961.  And Browning, a brilliant student of science forfeited a promising career as a scientist in order to participate in the struggle with her black sisters and brothers attempting to build the “beloved community”

 Born and raised in rural Georgia, her family’s farm was just down the road from the farms of “Two of the most powerful and notorious racist politicians in Georgia’s history.” They were Georgia governor Herman Tallmadge and US Senator Eugene Tallmadge, and the Senator’s wife was a cousin of the fire eating white supremacist Senator Strom Thurman of South Carolina, the leader of the reactionary Dixiecrats in the Senate, who opposed Civil Rights legislation and broke the Senate filibuster record by speaking for 21 hours against the 1964 Civil Rights Bill, which he said “was tantamount to enslaving white people.” Browning’s movement activism not only cost her a career in science but also a loving relationship with her family.  But lost of family and longtime friends is a recurrent theme in these stories of heroism and sacrifice. 

 Yet none of these selfless and incredibly brave women say that they regret their decision to take a stand on the side of freedom, justice and equality for African Americans. Quite the contrary in fact, to a woman they all talk about how much the movement did to liberate them from the stultifying pathology of white racism that infected virtually all white southerners. In Browning’s case especially, the movement provided a unique opportunity to carry out God’s call to Christian believers to come to the aid of the poor and oppressed.  She was practicing “liberation Theology” long before that term became au courant.  And as Dorothy Dawson Burlage – who was cultivated to assume her role as a pampered southern belle but ended up as a disciple of Ella Baker’s then went on to earn a PhD in child psychology – tells us,  the movement liberated them from the hollow role of southern white womanhood.

 Casey Hayden, whose given name is Sandra Cason, was once married to Tom Hayden, who later married Jane Fonda.  Born and raised in Texas, Casey was from an old WASP family that traced its roots to pre-revolutionary Virginia and was one of the first white southerners to join the Freedom Movement.  “The unfolding of my childhood toward the southern Freedom movement commences at the University of Texas in Austin, “says Casey,” which I entered as a junior in 1957,” and her activism began opposing segregation as an undergraduate at the University.  And she tells us, “When the sit-ins broke out across the south in 1960, I was back in Austin in graduate school.  The national president of the student YWCA was a black student at Bishop College in Marshall Texas, where the police had used tear gas to break up a march.  We brought her to speak at the Y just after she had been released from jail…I remember sweating and crying in the packed little auditorium. 

 “After that I went to the meetings of the Austin movement with the black women who lived across the hall from me in the only integrated housing on campus, the Christian Faith and Life community…the third life changing religious organization of my college years…At the CF&LC I experienced the creation of empowering community, and within it an image of myself in which I then lived.  Later, I understood the movement on this model. Our image of ourselves in the Southern Freedom Movement was that of the beloved community, created by the activity, the experience, of non-violent direct action against injustice.” 

Casey remained active with SNCC through 1965; she also worked with the legendary Ella Baker and participated in momentous events like the founding of the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party and the Mississippi Congressional Challenge. During this period she exposed herself to many life-threatening experiences and was a pivotal figure in the organization.  All of the stories in this volume are fascinating, and they give us an intimate look into the inner life of an altruistic community of men and women who were committed to a cause for which they were prepared to die. 

 The way these women continue to feel about the Freedom Movement is indicated in the title, ”Deep In Our Hearts,” which is taken from a line in the anthem of the civil rights movement We shall Overcome.  “Deep in my heart I do believe/ we shall overcome some day.”  It is a song that fortified those in struggle and prepared them to go forth unto the shadow of death.  To this day, decades after the southern movement has faded into myth and history, those refrains continue to give me goose pimples whenever I hear it. 

This inspirational and informative book not only provides us a rare and unvarnished look into the internal life of a wide range of white American families in the middle of the twentieth century, and the strange pathological views most held about African Americans, but also manages to recreate some critical episodes in the saga of the Civil Rights Movement which where heretofore unknown.  Finally, these eyewitness reports supply a fascinating inside look at how social movements are born, mature, and fade away.

 These deeply touching and very personal testaments – which paint a series of arresting portraits of the strength, dignity and intelligence of the southern blacks they met and struggled with, images which contradict the racist propaganda of white southern politicians and preachers – will immeasurably enrich the literature on the great black Freedom movement of the 1960’s.  It is essential reading for anyone interested in fully understanding that unique social movement which captured the best and brightest Americans of my generation, and changed the world’s most powerful nation for the better.

The Heroic Actions Of these Women and Their Comrades




Led to the passage of the 1964 Civil rights bill that changed America




Playthell Benjamin

Fall 2000

Send In The Clowns!

Posted in On Right Wing Pundits and Bloviators, Playthell on politics on October 20, 2009 by playthell

Sarah Palin, Alaskan Barbarian 

The Alaskan Barbarian at Home 


 A First Look

 So finally we heard from Sarah Palin – a rootin tootin gun slinging fading beauty queen from the wild wild west who is a religious fanatic, bans books, loves moose stew and is married to a white man she claims is an Eskimo – and it was painfully obvious that she is a clueless air head with the gift of gab.  It didn’t take long to see why the Republicans have placed such a premium on “managerial skills,” because this woman knows as much about the realities of the world as a mule knows about playing a fiddle.  Unfortunately the job of President of the United States is not the same as managing a Wall Mart, or the remote and under-populated state of Alaska.  Much has also been made of her tenure as the mayor of Wasilla, Alaska, which has a smaller population than resides in a four block radius of my neighborhood in Manhattan!  And I for one don’t believe that this simple minded country bumpkin could manage the affairs of New York City, let alone be entrusted with the fate of the nation.  

I have been to Alaska, driven for long stretches across its icy bosom when I was in the military, and it is mostly barren plains covered with snow and frozen tundra, or snow capped mountains.  I even considered going up to work on the oil pipeline they were beginning to build on the North Slope because of the high pay they were offering.  But I soon thought the better of returning to Alaska.  It’s a picturesque place but once was enough.  I’d just as soon see it on a postcard, or CBS Sunday Morning.  To try and make this desolate wilderness, populated by gun totin barbarians like the Governor, a model for what America is, or ought to be, is ridiculous.  It is safe to assume that Sarah Palin is not only clueless about foreign policy; she is equally ignorant of urban policy.

Governor Palin’s most impressive moments came when she discussed the energy crisis and the politics of oil, but that was marred by her shameless special pleading for the oil industry’s right to drill anywhere they want – even in the Anwar wilderness.   A vast wildlife preserve with limited oil deposits which lay right in the breeding grounds of the Caribou herds, Anwar is a critical component in the preservation of wildlife in the great Northwest.  I know of whence I speak because I once co-wrote a story in the Guardian/Observer of London about the firing of the British born civil engineer and cartographer, Ian Thomas, from the Department of the Interior for making a map that showed the spot where Bush planned to drill was right in the middle of the Porcupine Caribou calving grounds. 

            Thomas was fired but the outcry in the press, which the Guardian article initiated, caused Bush to abandon his plan to drill there.  So Governor Palin is not the only one “who knows the North slope of Alaska.”   I interviewed the mapmaker at length and he told me in detail about the topography, flora and fauna, and wild life in the area.  This is protected land, and John McCain has pledged not to drill there if he is elected President.  Let’s see if he keeps this promise as well as he as kept his word on immigration, Veterans benefits, rejection of religious extremism, etc.

 As I watched that crowd of screaming glassy eyed rednecks who filled the auditorium in St. Paul they reminded me of the lynch mob in Ishmael Reed’s great satirical novel Reckless Eyeballing.   Justly called “the greatest American satirist since Mark Twain,” Reed’s fiction is both erudite and hilarious; it is also irreverent with a disdain for racism, sexism, and bigotry of any kind, as well as pomposity and puffery.  There is a scene where a Jewish guy from up north goes down south and attends what he thought was a sporting event, held in a big stadium.  But then the redneck MC gets on the mike and began to recount the rape and murder of young Mary Phelem, a Christian girl whose attacker was a Jew.  But we can never know for sure if the Jew was guilty because the Christian crackers lynched him.  Then the Jewish guy learned that the crowd intended to reenact the lynching and he was the Jew they intended to lynch.  In a tragic/comic farce the Jew began to run for his life with the whole stadium chasing him!  

 That’s how I felt watching those right-wing Yahoo’s at the Republican convention.  And I am not the only black person who feels that way.  And the fact that there were only 36 blacks at the GOP convention explains why.  As rich and popular as D.L. Hugely is, he told Larry King that he looked at that crowd and just didn’t feel like he would be welcome there.  The whole vibe of the Republican convention was pugnacious; the mediocre political functionaries who spoke in behalf of John McCain’s character and judgment sank repeatedly into the gutter with a style of bombastic oratory that was innocent of either artifice or erudition.

There were a lot of personal attacks on the character and integrity of their Democratic opponents; but as they had nearly nothing to say about economic policy, or health care, or the mortgage crisis, or the collapse of public education, or the inability of deserving students to go to college because their parents can’t afford to help them, all that was left to them was the politics of personal destruction.  Remember the ordeal of John Kerry?  Here is a real hero, during and after the Vietnam war, especially after the war, who fought down on the ground where the blood and guts are real, not flying around in a multi-million dollar death machine bombing innocent men, women and children from high in the sky – I was in the Strategic Air Command and I know that’s what happens when you carpet bomb a country.    Yet the Republican attack machine made Kerry look like a dishonorable sissy and elected a shameless slacker who hid out in the National Guard while the war was raging in the steamy jungles of Vietnam.

As I write I am listening to the chatter of the TV pundits – whom I have long thought of as considerably less intelligent than print media pundits, and tonight’s commentary proves my point – and I am amazed at the shallow analysis of these guys.  They were discussing Mitt Romney’s speech with what I thought was far too much respect, given the fact that most of it was standard Republican prattle: mean spirited and shallow as a dry creek bed.   That is also an apt description of the speeches of Huckabee, Rudi, and Sarah Palin.

           Rabid, Racist, Rudy!

APTOPIX Republican Convention

Freaking out at the Republican Convention


By far Rudy Giuliani was the worst of the lot.  A showoff and pompous Martinet at heart, Giuliani was in his element.  He had the eyes of the world on him, the grandson of Italian peasants who can remember when the blond blue eyed races didn’t consider him “white,” and he intended to make the most of it.  So in a crude and overemotional fashion, much in the way transvestites switch their butts more than real women, Giuliani launched an artless diatribe that exposed him as a shallow charlatan to all but the shrieking idiots in the arena.   He hit all of the traditional Republican talking points and he was especially vicious; which was easy for Rudy since he seems genetically prone to racist behavior.   I was a working journalist in New York City when Giuliani ran for the Mayor’s office against David Dinkins, the first Afro-American elected Mayor of New York in the 360 years that African Americans have lived in that city, and Rudy conducted a racist campaign against him. 

            And when Rudy became Mayor he enacted racist policies that will cripple the progress of black people in New York City for decades. But this is not surprising because during his tenure as the Federal Attorney for the Southern District of New York, he never once brought a racial discrimination case!   Thus as Mayor he knew exactly how to camouflage his racist policies so that they cannot be proven in court.  The main arena in which he did this was in the city’s economic policies.  For in order to bring a discrimination suit against the City for discriminatory practices in contracting, hiring or promotions the city must keep records of who got what according to race and gender so that the offended parties could prove their claim based on public records.  When Giuliani came to office during the reactionary Republican ascendancy he ordered New York City agencies not to keep such records, thereby destroying the evidence of his crimes with no fear that Washington would intervene to enforce the Civil Rights laws.   This is the same man who as a Federal Attorney during the Reagan Administration went down to Haiti under pro-American fascist dictator, ”Baby Doc” Duvalier and reported there were no human rights violations.

As I watched him strutting around the stage like a little Bantam rooster I wondered why he was there at all.  His whole speech was an assault on Senator Obama’s judgment; yet this is a man whose judgment is so bad he recommended a mobbed up thug named Bernard Kerik to his crony George Bush to direct Homeland Security.  And if the FBI had not exposed Kerik’s mob ties we could have this incompetent sociopath heading a vital national agency, just like the guy who headed FEMA, and the whole world witnessed the results of such cronyism in the Bush administration’s response to Katrina.  And where does Rudy get off lecturing Barack Obama about the treatment of women; Barack’s wife says he is a darling of a husband and his children adore him. 

On the other hand Giuliani’s children told the press that they learned their “family values” from their mother.  And his daughter publicly declared herself an Obama supporter when Giuliani was still in the race!  They despise Rudy because of the way he humiliated their mother, Donna, a working television journalist who gave up her career to become Mrs. Giuliani; Rudy repaid her by openly screwing around with that shameless hussy to whom he is now married.  The tawdry red dress she wore as she applauded her Italian stallion was appropriate, for had she come along at an earlier time in the history of this republic she would be wearing a scarlet letter branded on her forehead.  And if Sarah Palin gets her just desserts, she will end up sitting in the corner wearing a dunce cap!

Playthell Benjamin

Harlem 2008

It’s A New Day!

Posted in Cultural Matters with tags , , , , on October 20, 2009 by playthell

Luke Ingram and Radio Legend Tom Joyner 


The Jazz in the Gardens Concert 022

Businessman Ingrahm is all smiles as he contemplates the future


On a recent trip through the American South I visited the sleepy little town of Brunswick Georgia.  However the boredom that is usually associated with small towns is alleviated here by virtue of the fact that St. Simon’s Island lay just over the bridge and attracts a cosmopolitan crowd.   It was while grooming and decorating myself in preparation for a visit to the cafes on St. Simon’s that I wandered into a Tonsorial Parlor – which is what they called elegantly decorated full service barber shops back in the day – located in a mini mall shopping strip located across the boulevard from the Georgia Costal College.  As it turned out, the proprietor was an enterprising young black man who was both a pleasant host and an artist with his clippers; I soon learned that his name was Luke Ingram.  And we hit it off right away.

As a class, barbers are a unique bunch.  Like beauticians, they must sell the illusion that they can make a person attractive by their cosmetological conjurations.  Hence people tend to have great faith in them as the alchemist who possesses the power to grant the gift of beauty.  As such, barbers and beauticians must also be part amateur psychologists and priest because they are forced to listen to confessions and offer home spun advice.  And their independent financial position was a catalyst for their support of and participation in the Civil rights struggle in the Deep South during the 1960’s; they had a first hand knowledge of the community’s problems and they didn’t work for the white folks.  Hence the racist defenders of the status quo couldn’t take away their livelihood.  However black barbers were active in the struggle all over the country, not just in the south

During conversations with Luke on my present visit to Brunswick, I learned that he was starting an organization aimed at giving direction and redefining the goals of the many young black males who are either misguided in their ambitions or wandering about aimless with no plan at all.  In too many cases these hapless young men wind up in jail or the graveyard before they have ever had a chance to really live.  As a young black man who was once fascinated by the sporting life of the streets and went afoul of the law, Luke knows first hand that the path being taken by far too many young men can only lead to disaster…sooner or later.  It’s in the cards.  That’s why as a music promoter he refuses to present rap acts that extol negative values and celebrate criminal or anti-social acts. 

The organization he founded, “Mature Movement: New Horizons for Youths,”  is  a mentoring program that engages young men in rap sessions and other activities designed to help them formulate a set of constructive values and define a life plan for success.  In this endeavor Luke is following in a distinguished tradition of barbers who have assumed leadership roles when their community was in crisis.  Two dramatic examples of African American barbers who led in the struggle against white supremacy and apartheid in their home towns were Clyde Jenkins of St. Augustine Florida and Ernie Chambers of Omaha Nebraska. Chambers would go on and become a lawyer then get himself elected to the state assembly.  Clyde Jenkins would perform some of the most self-less and heroic service to the struggle that few can match. 

I first heard of Ernie Chambers one day back in the turbulent Sixties when black folks were teaching white folks a new racial etiquette; by nature this effort could not be confined to the formal demonstrations lead by charismatic revivalists with silver tongues – those great orators, such as Dr. Martin Luther king and James Farmer, who could fire up the spirit of a crowd and inspire them to walk unarmed through the valley of death and fear no evil.  Although a few stars of the movement monopolized the attentions of the media, it was the masses of Afro-Americans who remain anonymous that made the movement successful.  Ernie Chambers was such a foot soldier for freedom, and a splendid one indeed.

Ernie first caught my attention because he made national news by just being what I consider a man and a good father.  He went down to the school house one day in Omaha and stuck in foot in a cracker teacher’s ass because the punk-ass muthafucka had insulted his little girl with a racist epithet.   However what I considered par for the course made big news in the media and most of white America was appalled.  I publicly applauded the brother during a speech soon after in Omaha, and he received greetings and salutations from black fathers all over the country.  The chain of events that followed Chamber’s actions propelled him into the thick of the struggle against the racist caste system in America.  He became a Civil rights activist, a lawyer and a state legislator.  Ernie Chambers set an example of leadership and manhood for black youths all across the nation.

 I remembered Clyde Jenkins as being easy like Sunday morning; a good natured even tempered pecan tan guy with a wit as sharp as his razor…a guy with a luminous smile and ready story or joke to provoke laughter; yet he seemed like a different guy when I read about his heroic deeds in the newspaper clippings preserved in the historical archives of St. Augustine Florida.  The records show that when the time came this slightly built good natured barber proved as tenacious as a tick and a man of uncommon courage.  He even scouted out a Ku Klux Klan meeting way back out in the piney woods.  When he and his companion were discovered they were captured by the Klan and came very close to being torched and burned alive!   They escaped this horrid fate only because a Federal Marshall had infiltrated their ranks and stopped the lynching from going down.

Reading about the incident in the archives was so gripping that I wanted to hear his recollections; I have tried to interview Clyde about those divine days but he dose not wish to remember…at lest he won’t speak on it.  But on my recent trip to St. Augustine I found plenty of people who lived and struggled through that period and were quite willing to talk about it.  And I am in the process of making a radio and video documentary of their testimony of remembrance, as well as their elation at the election of Barack Obama; which they rightly feel they had something to do with.  So when I arrived in Brunswick Georgia to visit my senior daughter Sandra, my head was full of stories about the bad old days of Southern apartheid and the heroic struggle Afro-Americans waged to overcome it.  And that’s what was on my mind when I returned to Luke’s barber shop for a haircut recently.


Droppin Science!

Rapping with the Youths in Brunswick 004

 Rapping with the young bloods at Mature Movement


I was pleasantly surprised to discover that Luke, who is also a local concert promoter and thus has a conduit to the youths, is seriously concerned about the fate of young black men in the US and has a vision for turning them away from the self-destructive patterns that are becoming the norm for large segments of inner-city youths. An ex-offender who once did three years for aggravated assault, Luke has managed to put his life back together and is flourishing.  In this sense he is like Malcolm X, who also did time for things he did when he was young and dumb, then joined the movement to uplift our people.  Luke has a college degree and a thriving business cutting the heads of the most important and powerful black men in the city, as well as wayward youths fascinated with the gangsta life.  Thus he has the kind of street cred that one must have in order to get the youths to listen.  And he is a solid church member to boot!

Last Friday evening I sat and rapped with Luke and another young brother “MC Wood from the Hood,” an aspiring rapper and enterprising young man who has built a recording studio in his apartment, and I was impressed with the passion of their convictions. They had different takes on the significance of the Obama election – although both agreed that it was a great thing – and I learned much about the thinking of our youths from listening to their conversation. To MC Wood Obama’s victory represents a giant step in the struggle for the recognition of black talent and intellect.  “If you are a black man whites just assume that you are stupid!  These same people may not like the Chinese but they still concede that they are smart.”  Hence for Wood the presidential election represents a triumphant vindication of black intellectual prowess.

  However for Luke, who is ten years older,  the election of Barack Obama is a victory for American society as a whole.  “This is a win for all people in this country regardless of color, because it shows that we as a nation have come a very long way,” Luke argued, “but the most important thing about the election of a black man to the most powerful position in the world is that it cancels the cop outs that so many of us are using to excuse our failures.  You can no longer credibly say ‘I can’t be nothing because I’m a black man.  That rap is over!”

        For Luke this election means that “Now we are full fledged Americans…maybe we ought to forget the African American stuff and just concentrate on making the most of being productive American citizens.”   MC Wood took passionate exception to Luke’s vision of the new America that has emerged since the ascension of Barack to the Oval Office; he’s not convinced that the red neck element and elite racist of the south are really on board with the program.  After all, Barack lost here, and Wood is convinced that most whites down here – especially the older generations – remain unrepentant rednecks!


MC. Wood: The Voice of the Hood

Live at Club Lnbre 009  Mc Wood and D.J. Unpredictable at the Hip Hop convention in Atlanta


Since our conversation developments such as the Tea Party demonstrations, with their blatantly racist signs and rhetoric, and the swelling ranks of whites who deny that our President is a native born American and therefore has no right to occupy the Oval Office, has convinced Luke that there are a lot more flaming white racist around than he thought.  Notwithstanding this reality, MC Wood and Luke continue to believe that the election of President Obama has ushered in a new day and there can be no credible excuse for failure in life because one is black.  “When I was still in school just a few years ago,” Wood recalls, “if a black kid had said they wanted to become President they became the butt of jokes.  People thought you were out of your mind!   So we limited our ambitions to lesser things, the presidency was a goal beyond our reach even though we were American citizens. But now that’s all over; we can become anything that our talent and hard work can get us.”   Listening to their hopeful vision of their future prospects in America, I had to agree with Will-I-Am: “It’s a new day! 


 Playthell Benjamin

Atlanta Georgia 





Posted in Cultural Matters, On Sports! on October 18, 2009 by playthell

 The Prowess Of Black Athletes Changed The Games


 African American Intellectuals Confront Darwin’s Athletes!

 There was an air of excitement on the cool spring morning in early April when I entered the Washington Square Park quadrangle, which is surrounded by the buildings of New York University.  Part of the excitement was generated by the television cameras set up on the sidewalk outside the law school, where anxious reporters hoped to catch a glimpse of, and perhaps cajole a statement from, Kenneth Starr, the grand inquisitor of the most powerful man in the world – President Bill Clinton.  “Porn” Starr was on campus to teach his weekly law class, which is held on Friday mornings.  But it was not the antics of Mr. Starr, as amusing and dangerous as they are, that occasioned my visit to this elite Manhattan campus.   

 I had come to NYU in order to check out “Sports Matters: “Black Intellectuals Respond to and Transcend Darwin’s Athletes,” a symposium held between April 2-4.  Organized by NYU history professor Jeffrey T. Sammons, who’s book “Beyond The Ring” is the definitive study of boxing in America.  The symposium’s raison d’être was a challenge laid down to black intellectuals by John Hoberman, a white professor of Germanic languages and sports studies at the University of Texas, who is the author of the provocative polemic “Darwin’s Athletes: How Sport Has Damaged Black America And Preserved The myth Of Race.”

“Interestingly,” writes Hoberman in the introduction to the paperback edition of his book, “my claim that much of the black male intelligentsia is generally unprepared to think critically about the role of sport in black life has evoked little response.”  Well, the response came in spades – so to speak – at the NYU symposium when a group of mostly black male scholars from various disciplines critiqued Hoberman’s book in a wide ranging series of scholarly papers. The papers are being prepared for publication under the editorship of Dr. Gerald Early – a Professor of Literature and Afro-American Studies and historian Jeff  Sammons.

To the disappointment of the participants and the audience, this writer included, John Hoberman, the catalyst for this event, was invited but chose not to show.  Hoberman has subsequently told Marion Boykins – the sports editor for The Black World Today – that he decided to boycott the Symposium because Sammons, whom he described as “a hostile reviewer,” chose an “all black” group of presenters who “shared his views on the book.”  This is a curious response from a man who publicly chided black intellectuals for not responding to his text.  Furthermore, Hoberman’s self-serving charge that Sammons stacked the deck borders on slander.

    Professor John Hoberman

John Hoberman

He Picked a Fight then Punked Out!
The Text that Started it All

Darwin's Athletes

A bizarre mixture of fascinating fact and white paternalist fiction

 What Prof. Sammons did was send copies of Hoberman’s book out to a group of black scholars who could offer thoughtful and enlightening commentary; that they independently arrived at similar conclusions about the quality of “Darwin’s Athletes” speaks more eloquently about the failures of Hoberman’s text than any conspiracy orchestrated by Sammons.  In fact, the presenters represented a remarkably diverse group.

They ranged from Kenneth Manning, the Thomas Melroy Professor of Rhetoric and of the History of Science, at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, to Kenneth L. Shropshire, Chairman of the Afro-American studies department and a professor in the Wharton business school at the University of Pennsylvania, to Sonja Steptoe, an attorney and a senior editor at Sports Illustrated and a national correspondent for the sports television network CNNSI, to Keith A.P. Sandiford, a cricket expert and Professor of History at the University of Manatoba in Canada, and Gerald Early, a distinguished sports essayist and the Chairman of the Afro-American studies department at Washington University.

This list is but a sampling of the heavyweight presenters who answered the call to critique “Darwin’s Athletes.”  Several of them have published splendid books and essays on the major themes explored in the book : the black athlete, the business and culture of sports, the class structure in black communities, the history of race and science, etc.  And it is fair to say that professor Hoberman’s arguments went over like a concrete balloon in this crowd; they just didn’t fly.

The overall attitude toward the book was that it is a work of grandiose ambition but is replete with half baked conjectures and gross speculations that are unsupported by the evidence Hoberman offers in defense of his major arguments: That Afro-Americans have a historically conditioned “sports fixation” which is the main obstacle to academic achievement and vertical mobility for black males, and that the enormous success of black male athletes is the major reason why 19th century theories of white supremacy are being dusted off and thrown back into the discourse on race by academic racist and other garden variety bigots.

Nobody at the symposium who had read the text felt that Hoberman successfully proved either point, this writer included.  His argument that the interracial camaraderie exhibited by black and white athletes in the sports arena has not carried over into other areas of American life seems on firmer ground, but he offers no evidence to support this hypothesis either.

The strongest part of the book is the author’s wide reading and analysis of the scientific and pseudo-scientific literature on race biology and athletic performance – from which I learned much – although it gets a bit redundant – as well as his biting critique of the white racist hypocrisy that surrounds big time sports.  His discussion of the psycho/social role of sport in legitimizing European colonization of third world countries is also enlightening.  But Hoberman’s approach to the presentation of evidence when theorizing about the role of sports in Afro-American culture and community, which often seems arbitrary,  presents big problems.

Relying on a series of anecdotes and hearsay he employs neither the careful documentation of specific claims which is the standard methodology of historians, nor the rigorous comparative statistical analysis that is the indispensable tool of the sociologist. psychologist, et. al.  The result of this shoddy approach to documenting his central thesis is a seriously flawed book, perhaps fatally.  Hence Hoberman is like the proverbial cow that gives a good bucket of milk then kicks it over.

Among the scholars assembled at NYU, no one believed that “Darwin’s Athletes” would have ever seen the light of day had it been subjected to the kind of exacting peer review that would have greeted the work of a professional historian, sociologist, anthropologist, et. al.  The book was universally regarded as the work of a paternalistic dilettante – Kenneth Manning dismissed the text as “unintelligent and not well written” – but still found its way to publication mainly because it is yet another work by a know-it-all white male author that traffics in what Albert Murray has aptly called “The fakelore of black pathology.”

It is a subject for which white folks apparently have an insatiable appetite.  In fact, my experience as a journalist convinces me that Albert Murray is right on the money when he argues that “Whenever whites are given a choice of black pathology or black heroism, they will inevitably choose pathology.”

One example of this is Hoberman’s decision to seize upon Ralph Ellison’s comments on Richard Wrights descriptions of his bleak childhood in Mississippi as an example of how southern black parents in general brutalized their children, crippling their intellectual and emotional development.  Aside from the charge made by Daryl Scott, a Afro-American professor who teaches at Columbia University, that Hoberman misrepresents Ellison’s views in his paper, “Exposed and Abused: Hoberman’s misrepresentation of Ellison,” Hoberman offers no supporting empirical data to support these highly personal and subjective ruminations.

Hoberman also ignores autobiographical and literary texts which paint a very different portrait of Afro-American family life and community, like Albert Murray’s trilogy – Train Whistle Guitar, The Spy Glass Tree and The Seven League Boots – which follow the growth and development of a southern black boy who came from humble Alabama roots and went on to achieve heroic status as an intellectual and artist.  A story that mirrors Mr. Murray’s own marvelous life.

 Albert Murray: Blues Philosopher
Ellison and Murray
With fellow sports fan and novelist Ralph Ellison

Although Hoberman flatters himself by suggesting that Sammons rigged the debate, when I read the book I had never met Sammons and knew nothing of the forthcoming conference, yet I found that my thinking was in harmony with the opinions expressed there and my final judgments about the book has certainly been influenced by what I heard.  I originally read Hoberman’s polemic on the recommendation of Marion Boykins, who, although expressing some reservations, actually liked the book.  So I approached the reading with an open mind and positive vibes.  But I was unable to make it through the introduction without developing profound misgivings about the author’s sweeping generalizations, which I seriously doubted that he could prove.

 The Stylized Body Of the Highly Eccentric Dennis Rodman

Dennis Rodman2-sized

 Hoberman assures us this striking man hates himself!

For instance, Hoberman’s pronouncement that “the self mutilating eccentric Dennis Rodman, whose hair dyes and tattoos have turned his entire body into a kaleidoscopic demonstration of how black self hatred can be marketed to white America,”  is typical of many conjectures for which he never offers any empirical evidence.  We are simply expected to accept this as the truth because he says so.

Using Hoberman’s logic one could just as easily conclude that white women hate their color, body image and facial features because they are spending millions on plastic surgery designed to give them larger breast and fuller Negroid like lips; plus they – along with white males – are willing to risk acquiring a deadly skin cancer in order to tan their pale skins!

I would later discover that so much of what Hoberman has to say regarding Afro-American culture and the role of the athlete resembles this kind of omniscient preachment rather than objective scholarship.  But even relying on the kind of impressionistic analysis Hoberman so often resorts to, one could argue that Rodman’s style is characteristic of the white rock milieu in which he hangs out, and in which he is lionized.

While Rodman is undoubtedly viewed by many whites and blacks as a buffoon, millions of others would gladly change places with him faster than the Cisco Kid could draw his guns.  Especially after witnessing Madonna, and one of the blond female heirs to the vast fortune of the Texas Hunts, almost engage in a fist fight in order to get a seat closest to the court in order to watch their Rod-man rebound the rock.


madonna likes it black

  She was ready to rumble over her chocolate Rod Man!

Of course, the erotic attraction of choice white females to black male prowess is the great unacknowledged subtext to the century old white male discussion about the role of the black male athlete.  Perhaps this explains the conspicuous absence of  discussions about the black female athlete, who is just as dominant as her male counterpart.  Consider Wilma Rudolph, Althea Gibson, Florence Joyner, Jackie Joyner Kerse, Merlene Otty, Venus and Serena Williams, Cynthia Cooper,  Chyrl Swoops et. al.

Black Women Dominate the Same Sports as Black Men!

Merlene ottey44

This is the Olympics: Where’s the White Girls
The Great Merlene Otty


A Seven Time Olympic Sprinter!
 Serena: A Force of Nature On the Tennis Court!

Serena-Williams-Goes Sexy

Powerful and Sexy too

As I read Hoberman’s scathing critique of Rodman, Nate Newton, Charles Barkley, and Alonzo Mourning et. al., I began to brace myself for another round of spurious arguments about the pathological nature of African American culture, offered up by yet another patronizing white academic on the make, with too much time and money on his hands, taking a well worn path to a wider arena of recognition than is generally afforded an obscure language teacher in a Texas university.  As Hoberman’s preachment became shrill, with dire warnings about the evils of black America’s “sports fixation,” I was reminded of the old Ibo proverb: “Beware of the stranger who comes to the funeral and cries louder than the bereaved.”

After completing the text, I remain convinced that my original suspicions were true, although I would add that Prof.. Hoberman also seems to be motivated by some of the same missionary impulses that compelled his white ancestors to ship out to Africa, Asia, the Americas, and the islands of the seven seas on a mission to civilize the “savages.”  And,  as a descendent of Africans, I am forced to remember that that’s where all our troubles with white folks began.  And our troubles have been legion.

Hoberman’s contention that “Interracial sport has thus breathed new life into our racial folklore, reviving 19th century ideas about the racial division of labor that then recur in a trend-setting book like The Bell Curve,” is also unconvincing.  When I was a boy growing up in Florida, there was a time when there were no black athletes in professional sports except boxing.

Yet there was no paucity of theories of black inferiority because such theories supplied the intellectual underpinnings for a system of de-Jure white supremacy, just as they continue to lend legitimacy to de-facto white supremacy.  As Hoberman’s own research demonstrates, there has never been a time in the nation’s history when white Americans were not espousing some racist theory or another about the inferiority of their black countrymen.  Clearly, white racism is a persistent pathology that infects the American body politic and the nation’s major institutions in good times and bad.

There Were Virtually No Black Professional Athletes Back Then

Colored Fountain

        But still…white racism was the order of the day
It was the way we were!


The truth is that there is an unbroken tradition of white racist ideology in this country that ranges from the “Great Chain of Being”  which was popular during the revolutionary and early national periods in the 18th century, to the “Bell Curve” in the declining years of the twentieth century.  Hence there is no plausible reason why African Americans should especially concern themselves with the fact that some white folks are now zeroing in on the stunning success of  black athletes as an excuse to attack their humanity.

I emphasize some white people because a serious shortcoming of Hoberman’s argument is his tendency to speak of white and black Americans as undifferentiated masses who think alike.  However, as any editor of a major newspaper knows – or had better know if they hope to succeed – there are many publics even within the same racial or ethnic group, and they all have a different take on reality.

            Since the author presents no polling data or opinion surveys, I have no idea what percentage of white Americans actually view great black athletes as proof of Charles Darwin’s compensation theory – an argument advanced in his book ”The Decent of Man” – that great physical prowess is compensation for an intellectual deficit.  First of all, when this book was written Africans were an enslaved people all over the western world, and theories of white superiority abounded because they were employed to justify a system of racial tyranny which was clearly at odds with Judeo-Christian ethics which provided the moral basis of the American creed.

        He’s An Athlete and Big Time Sports Fan Too
Ronald Mcnair - AstronautAstronaut and Space Scientist
  MIT PhD in Physics, Musician, and Martial Artist

 Dr. S. Alan Counter Explorer of the Artic and Amazon

 Counter - greenland

 Harvard Biologist, Koralinska Fellow, MD Neurologist

A  Former football player and avid sports fan!

Yet today, the descendants of those African slaves have overthrown the legal caste system in a century of heroic struggle and are now piloting space ships, designing space stations, running big cities, passing legislation in the Congress, performing brain surgery, playing the Hyden Concerto, singing Italian operas, winning Nobel Prizes, teaching at Harvard and MIT, running business,’ commanding the nations armed forces, creating the nation’s popular culture, brokering deals among the nation’s power elite in Washington, managing the President’s budget and even making presidents, elevating the art of legal argument, capturing the Pulitzer prize and the National Book Award, composing and performing jazz at the Lincoln Center, and catching satellites in outer space.  And since this essay was originally written we have a basketball playing, Harvard trained black President in the White House!

After black Americans have proven themselves in all these arenas,  it boggles the mind to believe that their white fellow Americans are still so screwed up on the race question that they are prepared to retreat to 19th century Darwinian compensation theories because some Afro-American males routinely fly through the air dunking basketballs with a spectacular power and grace that white players – Brent Barry excepted – have been unable to match.

In any case, even if Hoberman is right about the racist response of white Americans and their European brethren to black athletic dominance, what would he have black athletes do?  Dose he think they should stop giving superb performances?  These questions are never satisfactorily addressed in the text.

While fudging these questions Hoberman does offer plenty of advice, some not without merit, about the need to direct black youths away from excessive concentration on sports as a profession.  The problem is, like his speculations about the reactions of white Americans to the great Afro-American sports spectacle in living color, Hoberman never demonstrates that the black community’s alleged “sports fixation” actually exist, and if it does the consequences of this fixation are what he says they are.

Nothing in Hoberman’s argument inspired more critical comment during the symposium.  “Here too there is no point in speaking hypothetically,” writes Hoberman with an air of authority reserved for omniscient white male academics, “since African Americans’ attachment to sports has been diverting interest away from the life of the mind for most of this century.

The rejection of academic achievement as a source of “clan pride” is already rampant among black boys, whose preferred models are rappers and athletes.”  That this statement is offered as a reply to Charles Murray, co-author of  “The Bell Curve,” who suggested that since black folks have been slighted in their intellectual endowment we should content ourselves with “the dominance of many black athletes,” demonstrates the central problem most critics at the symposium had with the book.  Hoberman simply substitutes claims of biological inferiority for  allegations of cultural pathology, a maneuver that Afro-American anthropologist Lee D. Baker, a presenter at the symposium, calls “tag team white supremacy.”

Let me declare my self right off : I think the first proposition advanced in Hoberman’s argument is bunk, and while his second point has some validity, I suspect it is greatly overstated.  But these are not the worst of Hoberman’s intellectual transgressions.  His misreading of Afro-American history and wild conjectures about black culture degenerate into hyperbole when he attempts to manufacture evidence in order to support his sports fixation thesis.

The following statement is a representative example of his method. “Although neither The Souls Of Black Folks nor the Miseducation Of The Negro contains a word about sports, both address with disarming candor the demoralizing educational predicament that encouraged a growing adulation of Negro athletes during the 1920’s and 1930’s.  The black athletes who today refine their athletic skills and little else at American universities are thus the damaged inheritors of an educational philosophy that once promoted manual training as the highest cultural achievement to which black youngsters could aspire.”  There are so many holes in this argument that a separate treatise could easily be written just to fill them.

What Hoberman is referring to is the system of industrial education advocated by Booker T. Washington, which WEB Dubois harshly critiques in his essay “Of Mr. Booker T. Washington And Others.”  It was an educational philosophy which privileged the acquisition of vocational skills over academic learning.  Yet Dubois, a militant New Englander who had received a classical academic education – beginning at Fisk , a private black college in Nashville, Tennessee, then earning a Harvard doctorate, and completing all work, including dissertation, for the doctorate in economics from the University of Berlin – did not deny the need to train Afro-Americans in the skills critical to survival in an industrializing economy and, in fact, praised Booker T. for his efforts.

However Dubois also argued that a modern liberal education was essential for the growth of a competent leadership class who could direct the development of the mass of Afro-Americans in political, cultural and economic affairs.  This was the logic behind his call for the creation of a “Talented Tenth,” which he advanced in “The Souls of Black Folks,” published in 1903, eight years after Washington’s Famous Atlanta speech laying out his philosophy for black development, and only thirty eight years after the close of the civil war that finally ended chattel slavery.

And Carter G. Woodson, who began high school at 21 years old then went on to earn a Harvard PhD in history, obviously shared Dubois’ views on the importance of higher education in spite of the fact that he was pro-Washington.  His call for a “New Type Of Professional Man” in The Miseducation Of The Negro, although published three decades later, bears a close resemblance to Dubois’ Talented Tenth.  Woodson wrote: “Negroes should study for the professions for all sane reasons that members of another race should go into these lines of endeavor and also on account of the particular call to serve the lowly of their race.”

Dr. DuBois Was the Preeminent Champion of Liberal Education

Dr. dubois in the Crisis Ofice

Yet more objective in his critique of Washington 

Hoberman quotes the following passage from The Miseducation of the Negro, and, as is his habit, proceeds to draw the worst possible conclusions about Afro-American life. “Negroes, then, learned from their oppressors that there were certain spheres into which they should not go because they would have no chance therein for development.”  From that comment by Woodson, Hoberman concludes that “Intellectual curiosity itself was being strangled at birth.” But it does not follow that this was the result.  I have heard similar comments from Jews who went on to outstanding careers in the learned professions.  Among the people who told me his Russian immigrant father discouraged a serious pursuit of advanced education because he didn’t believe it would lead to success in a land run by Anglo Saxon anti-Semites, is the brilliant New York attorney Martin Garbus.

           Dr. Carter G. Woodson

 Dr. Carter G. Woodson

 The Father Of Afro-American Historiography

And in any case Dr. Woodson is describing an attitude that existed among some Afro-Americans over half a century ago, when it was wise counsel for black parents to warn their children about the restrictions America’s racial caste system placed on their life chances.  Even now it is sometimes wise for black parents to counsel their children against pursuing certain careers – a tactic with which Hoberman obviously concurs if the kid is an athlete.

However, I think that a brilliant black ballet dancer, operatic tenor, or classical violinist has less of a chance to rise to the top of their profession than a similarly talented black athlete.  That’s why I discouraged my daughter from seriously pursuing a career in ballet, and many black parents advise their children from pursuing a career in European classical music- especially those who have first hand knowledge of the added burdens that race imposes on an already demanding field of endeavor.

Furthermore Woodson, whose pioneer role in Afro-American historiography is above reproach – was not always consistent in his opinions regarding racial uplift.  For instance, in the same book quoted by Hoberman, Woodson himself ridicules the aspirations of highly educated Afro-Americans whose academic training only led to disillusionment because their ambitions could not be realized under the American racial caste system.

“In the schools of business administration Negroes are trained exclusively in the psychology and economics of Wall Street and are, therefore, made to despise the opportunities to run ice wagons, push banana carts, and sell peanuts among their own people.”  Woodson’s scathing critique of black  businessmen is echoed in his criticism of striving black journalist: “In schools of journalism Negroes are being taught how to edit such metropolitan dailies as the Chicago Tribune and the New York Times, which would hardly hire a Negro as a janitor.”

However, what Hoberman also fails to mention is that Woodson saves his most caustic criticism for the white teachers and administrators who make their living misleading black students whom they despise.  “These misfits belong to the very group working out the segregation of the Negro,” Woodson argued “and they come into these institutions mainly to earn a living.  They make no particular contribution to the development of education, for they are not scholarly enough to influence educational theory; and they are so far out of sympathy with the Negro that they cannot make any contribution to educational practice.”

 Clearly a great part of Woodson’s contempt for these whites, who owed their positions to the politics of race, was that they should be directing the education of black youths while great scholars like Kelly Miller, Dubois and himself, who could have made a priceless contribution were denied the opportunity!  And when Woodson spells out his ideas about a suitable pedagogy for black youths, it sounds a lot like what the best Afrocentric intellectuals advocate today; especially strong programs in African and Afro-American history, reassessments of religion and the bible from a black point of view, and an approach to the study of language that bears a striking resemblance to Ebonics.

  While Dubois disagreed with aspects of Tuskegee’s educational program, what he most abhorred about Washington was his accomodationist social and political policy, as expressed in his 1895 speech at the World Exposition of Cotton Growing States, which Dubois labeled the “Atlanta Compromise.” The positions on black affairs advocated by Washington in that speech and many other public utterances won over powerful white men even as it made him sound like a character right out of Stanley Elkins’ infamous essay “Slavery and the Sambo Personality.”  But those who have read historian Louis Harland’s works on Washington know that his humble Uncle Tom public image was a mask.

It was a masquerade dictated by the imperatives of survival under the oppressive caste system that prevailed in Washington’s America, and was immortalized in Paul Laurence Dunbar’s poem “We Wear the Mask,” as well as in the folk ditty “Got one mind for white folks to see/ got another mind I know is really me.”  Washington was anything but the obsequious darky most white Americans believed him to be.  Despite the fact that he spent his first decade as a slave, like Frederick Douglass, Washington developed into a sophisticated cosmopolite who became quite at home In the company of powerful white men.   And he was the best ever at getting those white men to support his causes!

The Wizard Of Tuskegee


 The Slave Who Became an Aristocrat

Washington promoted the idea of industrial education so heavily because he, like other black southern educators to follow, understood that  it was much easier to placate racist southern officials and northern white philanthropist if he privileged vocational training over a liberal academic education.  Furthermore, this philosophy was intended to serve the needs of a predominantly rural population whose main experience with the world of work was the plantation, as former chattel slaves and sharecroppers.

Many of the students who graduated from Tuskegee Institute, like my uncle Birnry, went on to establish businesses and sold their services to the highest bidder, becoming property holders with money in the bank.  And this is precisely the outcome Booker T. wanted for Tuskegee graduates.  Aside from the Herculean task of raising money, he had the added burden of trying to sustain the school in Ku Klux Klan infested rural Alabama at a time when black people were being lynched throughout the south at a rate of one every two and a half days.

That’s why he adopted a strategy of making public statements accepting segregation and denouncing political agitation, while finessing huge sums of money from super rich industrialist, like Andrew Carnegie, and secretly financing lawsuits challenging racial inequality.  By the time Albert Murray, one of America’s most literate men, attended Tuskegee in the thirties the campus had developed sufficient intellectual resources to produce a Ralph Ellison, to whom Hoberman dedicates his book.

It should be duly noted that Ellison’s stint at Tuskegee is the only formal education he ever received.  A poignant look into the intellectual life of some of the students of that era can be found in Murray’s “The Spy Glass Tree,” which paints a very different picture of black college life from “Invisible Man,” although he was at Tuskegee when Ellison was there, albeit an underclassman.

Hoberman’s argument that the philosophy of industrial education in black schools, which was centered at Tuskegee, limited the cultural aspirations of their students to manual work, and that these demoralized students then turned to athletic hero worship for some sort of psychic salvation is absurd!

His contention that black athletes who are failing in white universities today have been damaged by a educational philosophy that was advocated in some black colleges in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries is without any factual basis whatsoever, and he makes no attempt to establish one.  An obvious test for his thesis would be to compare the graduation rates of black athletes at white colleges with those of black colleges.

I suspect that a comparison of the graduation record of students who played for Grambling’s Eddie Robinson, who has more victories than any coach in the history of college football and is a steady supplier of superstars to the NFL, with the records of some of the better known white football coaches, might easily discredit Hoberman’s half baked theory.  And I also suspect that’s why he avoided such a comparison.

The Great Eddie Robinson

 Eddie Robinson - All time great

He insisted that his players get a degree

 The fact is that those of us who went off to black colleges in the fall of 1959, the generation that launched the student sit-in movement, found schools which were overwhelming devoted to providing a liberal academic education.  The educational philosophy of Dubois had long triumphed over Washington’s.  If black students had been the demoralized, sports fixated, ignoramuses Hoberman describes we would have been incapable of waging the heroic struggle that toppled southern apartheid.

Although I grew up in the segregated south the black southern students, schools and community Hoberman describes are strangers to me.  One of the reasons why he misses his mark is because he freely mixes events and eras in such a way as to arbitrarily attribute events of one era to causative factors from another.

For instance, his conclusion that the beatings which are a part of the hazing rituals of black fraternities are symbolic re-enactment’s of the ordeals of slavery, rather than the far more plausible explanation that these violent practices were simply copied from the white fraternities on whom the black Greek letter organizations are patterned, is a strong case in point regarding the shortcomings of his methodology.  Hoberman avoids the rather obvious conclusion that black fraternities borrowed their hazing rituals from white fraternities, even while admitting that more students have died from white fraternity hazings.

It is puzzling how Hoberman chastises other authors throughout his text for advancing spurious arguments that violate the principles of scientific investigation, then so brazenly engages in the practice himself.  Reflecting on the fictive character of Hoberman’s theories about Afro-American culture, I wondered if it might be the result of his long involvement in literary studies, a field where subjective interpretation and creative riffs on the facts  are accepted practices.  But his willingness to repeatedly draw the most perverse conclusions about Afro-American life based on the flimsiest of evidence calls into question not only his methods but  his motives.

Bart Landry, an Afro-American sociologist at the University of Maryland, who is an authority on the black middle class, raised questions about Hoberman’s misuse of evidence in a paper presented to the symposium entitled “Are We Our Brother’s Keeper?”

Responding to Hoberman’s charge that the black community – including the middle class – has a historical sports fixation that has prevented them from stressing the importance of education, Prof. Landry observed: “I find these charges to be frivolous at best, especially since evidence to the contrary is either omitted or discounted by him.  While giving the impression of knowing a great deal about black history and contemporary black life, Hoberman ignores the fact that blacks of all classes have historically placed strong emphasis on education.”

 Willie Galimore

 Willie Galimore

He invented the modern running back style

Landry’s view of the Afro-American community’s devotion to education is reminiscent of my own memories of how education was regarded in the black southern community in which I grew up.  I went to all black schools from elementary school up to college, and I can’t remember a single teacher, including the coaches, who suggested that we pursue a career in sports., nor hold up athletes as our most important role models.

This was true in spite of the fact that football was almost a rite of passage for black and white males in Florida, and that my small high school, in Saint Augustine, had produced two players who played in the National Football League during the openly racist fifties.  Bill Irving played with the Philadelphia Eagles, and the great Willie Gallimore; whose feats with the Chicago Bears qualitatively changed the running back’s game.

But not even these two splendid athletes were held up as role models in whose footsteps we should try to follow, because our parents and teachers had far better sense than that.  The race heroes who were most often celebrated in our schools and churches were Booker T. Washington, scientist Dr. George Washington Carver, Generals Benjamin Davis junior and senior, Civil rights lawyer Thurgood Marshall, labor leader A. Phillip Randolph, Nobel Laureate Ralph Bunch, pioneer heart surgeon Dr. Daniel Hale Williams, Dr. Charles Drew, the inventor of blood plasma, inventor Elijah McCoy, “The Real McCoy,”  classical singers Marion Anderson and Roland Hayes, educator and racial diplomat Dr. Mary McLeod Bethune, Congressman Adam Clayton Powell, and just before I graduated from high school Ghanaian President Kwame Nkrumah, Egyptian President Abdel Gamel Nasser and Dr. Martin Luther king was added to the list.

        Our Hero!

 Dr. Carter in his Lab

Dr. George Washington Carver in his lab

The only athletes who warranted honorable mention in the pantheon of black heroes listed above were Jackie Robinson, Jesse Owens, Joe Louis, and Althea Gibson.  And these athletes were celebrated more for the racial obstacles they had to overcome and the racial uplift propaganda that could be gleaned from their triumph over whites on and off the playing fields .

And once he became the Vice President for Personnel, with the Chock Full of Nuts corporation, that achievement was elevated far above his baseball exploits by the leaders of Afro-American opinion.  And in any case, the self-control Robinson maintained because he recognized that he was a path blazer for other black people was what black preachers, teachers and other members of the educated class always celebrated most in him.

Robinson was as much admired for his articulate speech, elegant style and dignified demeanor as his outstanding play.  And in his later years it was his active participation in the civil rights movement that won him the most respect from black Americans.  One of the real scandals of this book is the way Hoberman totally misreads the significance of Jackie Robinson to Afro-Americans.

Let me elaborate on just how badly Hoberman misses the mark.  I am engaged in a project to interview everybody who is still alive that participated in the bloody demonstrations in St. Augustine Florida during  1963- 64, the brutality of which served as a catalyst for the passage of the 1964 Civil Rights Bill; a piece of legislation that radically altered race relations in America and changed the country for the better.

One of the people interviewed was my boyhood friend Heywood Fleming, who was a soldier on the front lines during the protracted racial conflict that greeted the movement for civil rights on the part of the oldest African-American community in the country.  I asked him about one march in particular, a night march down to the old slave market In the heart of the ancient city.

When I read about it in the carefully preserved documents in the city’s historical archives, I was amazed at how they commanded the intestinal fortitude to carry out the march when everybody knew that “Hoss” Manucy and his posse of armed rednecks called “The Ancient City Gun Club,” a chartered organization that allowed the white racist to arm themselves to the teeth and use those weapons to threaten and attack black citizens of St. Augustine, would be laying In wait for them.

Having grown up there and walked that route many times, I knew there were endless nooks and coveys from which an aggressor with murder on their minds could hide out and launch a surprise attack.  Furthermore, the black marchers were pledged to remain non-violent in the face of a violent attack from the rednecks.  The whole thing was quite Incomprehensible to me; I was committed to Malcolm X’s position: “If a cracker lays a hand on you or anybody you care about try your best to put him six feet under!”

I felt that way then and I feel that way now.  So it was with genuine curosity that I asked Heywood: “How did yhall do it…where did you get the nerve?”  His reply astonished me.  “Well, you know It was a very religious atmosphere around the movement; I mean Dr. Martin Luther King had just delivered a great sermon and there was all the good singing to fire up the crowd.  We definitely felt that we were doing the Lord’s work, and that he was on our side.”

“But I was still unsure if I was going to march or not,” Heywood said, “I mean it was a really scary situation.  But our leaders kept telling us that the world was with us and if we kept marching we would eventually win our freedom; we just had to stand firm and keep our eyes on the prize.”  Although I have been an avowed atheist since I was thirteen, his description of the central role of religion didn’t really surprise me.

But I was shocked when he said: “I was still sitting up in the sanctuary trying to make up my mind while others were falling in line to begin the march; then somebody came running up the stairs and shouted excitedly ‘Jackie Robinson is downstairs and he’s gonna march with us!”   I ran to the window to see if it was true’ and when I saw Jackie Robinson standing in the middle of Washington Street that’s when I made up my mind to march.  Because we felt like if Jackie Robinson was with us we couldn’t lose!”  Hence contrary to how Hoberman and a few northern black militants feel about Jackie: to the struggling black people of St. Augustine he was a saint!

This admiration springs for the things Jackie contributed to our struggle. This includes his putting up with bullshit insults from white boys he could have squashed like a fly, in order to open doors for other black players.  Although Mr. Hoberman doesn’t seem to realize it – perhaps it’s because of the Teutonic inclination to violence in order to get their way – the posture assumed by Jackie when he came into Major League baseball require great discipline and incredible courage.  It also required a great love for and commitment to the freedom and progress of his people.  And it was these qualities, rather than his athletic exploits, that won him the love and respect of millions of Americans black and white!

Hence there was no dichotomy between athletics and scholastics In the black communities I came of age in.  Although I doubt that anyone of my generation loved playing football more than I did, that love didn’t stop me from dreaming about becoming a symphony conductor, nor diminish my curiosity about the wonders of science, nor prevent me from becoming a civil rights activist – although certain football players at A&M shunned involvement in the movement because they thought it could hurt their athletic careers – nor did it dampen my love for reading Shakespeare.

I first heard the ideas of European philosophers like Kant and Spinoza passionately debated by local black college football and basketball players like “Bubby Robinson” and “Big Bama,” outside of McCall’s barbershop, which became an important center for organizing the civil rights struggle when Martin Luther King came to town in 1964, and one of it’s proprietors, Clyde Jenkins, became a hero of the movement. And, I might add, another hero of that movement was Jackie Robinson.

 Jackie Comforting The Children in St. Augustine

 Jackie in St. Augustine

  A True Hero of Our Struggle!

 Jackie and Martin

Jackie was a close ally of Dr. Martin Luther King

The argument presented by professor Landry confirms my own memory of the importance of education among Afro-Americans.  “In the late 19th and early 20th century,” he writes, “black families were more likely to send their children to school than immigrant white families.  In pursuit of an education, several generations of black youth crowded into one room school houses all over a segregated south.

That this emphasis on educational attainment has continued is evidenced by the fact that in 1976, when financial aid from the government was high, the same proportion of black as well as white high school graduates entered college.  Thereafter, a decline in financial aid resulted in the reduction of black college attendance.”

Landry summed up the prevailing sentiment at the symposium when he concluded that “Darwin’s Athletes” leaves one with “the impression of a book written to ‘prove’ a thesis by marshaling supporting anecdotes and making unsubstantiated sweeping generalizations.”  An excellent example of Hoberman’s selective use of evidence is his failure to mention the fact that Richard Williams, the father of Venus and Serena Williams, is the only parent to our knowledge who withheld two world class teenage tennis players off the international circuit because he thought it was “child abuse.”

Instead, he sent his daughters to school, an act which was regarded as bizarre by the legions of middle class white parents who couldn’t wait to push their less talented progeny onto the tennis courts of the pro circuit.  But then, guys like Richard Williams are almost always viewed by white Americans as exceptions to the rule who just pop up out of nowhere.  They are rarely seen as the product of enlightened Afro-American cultural traditions.


Richard Williams


 The smartest parent in tennis! 

“Do middle-class blacks like sports?” Landry asks, dealing with the heart of Hoberman’s indictment of the black elite for having succumbed to “a sports infatuation.”   “Certainly many do.  Do Middle-class blacks focus on sports more than whites?  Well, no one really knows.  However, national time use surveys by one of my colleagues at the University of Maryland, John Robinson,… show that middle-class whites devote more time to attending sporting events than do middle-class blacks.  The same is true for working class whites.”  However, not all of the scholars at the symposium agree that even if it’s true that Afro-Americans have a love of sport that amounts to a “fixation,” it is automatically a bad thing.

The most persuasive argument for that point of view was put forth by Dr. Keith A. P. Sandiford, an Afro-Barbadian cricket expert who is a Professor of History at the university of Manatoba, in Canada. “ Some former colonial societies have succeeded extremely well here by emphasizing the value of education, by arguing that athletic triumphs depend to a large extent upon mental acuity, and by promoting their black, brown, and yellow heroes in all disciplines.”  Hence Sandiford, who pointed out that Barbados has the highest literacy rate in the world, argued that  “It cannot be disputed that Barbadian cricketers continue to be lionized by a society still enthralled by the cult of cricket, but the Barbadians (committed as they have traditionally been to  the competing cult of education) have never lost their respect for intellectual genius.  There is, in the final analysis, nothing wrong with the sports fixation itself- so long as it leaves time for other constructive addictions.”

A National obsession in victorian England and Barbados 

Cricket-Player - In West Indies 

Two of the most literate societies in the world!

Sandiford’s argument raises an important question: Why did Hoberman not devote at least a chapter to great black athletes who do not fit the model of the muscle bound ignoramus who, in his mind as well as the racist academics he so vociferously denounces, is the prototype of the black athlete.  Some very obvious examples come to mind.  Paul Robeson, Fritz Pollard, W. Montague Cobb, Benjamin Davis, Arthur Ashe, Allan Page, Leroy and Dewy Selmon, Bernie Casey, Ed Beatty, Jim Brown, Gail Sayers, David Robinson, Grant Hill, Calvin Hill, John Wideman, Napoleon McCallum, Edwin Moses and Karim Abdul Jabbar.  Dr. Ralph Bunche, Gene Fugett, Peter Westbrooks et. al.

Big Paul


As close to Human Perfection as we are likely to see

Given the fact that he lettered in four varsity sports, and went on to play professional football, one could say that if anyone had a “sports fixation” it was Paul Robeson.  Yet few Americans, if any, can match his intellectual and artistic achievements, not to mention his extraordinary commitment to social justice. But there is only one mention of Robeson in Hoberman’s text , and that was an obviously political statement made by Robeson in an attempt to goad black athletes and entertainers into political action.  And what about John Wideman and Ed Beatty, both of whom turned down an opportunity to play in the National Basketball Association to pursue intellectual and artistic interest.  Wideman took a Rhodes Scholarship and went on to become a literature professor and one of the nations premiere writers, and Ed Beatty, a 7’-1” center, chose to play ball in Europe in order to pursue graduate study in the fine arts.  He is now and internationally renowned painter.

An Officer and a Gentleman!

David Robinson

From the Naval Academic to the NBA Hall Of Fame

David Robinson and Napoleon McCallum are both graduates of the Naval Academy, Calvin Hill has a Masters degree from Yale, his son Grant is a Duke Graduate, W. Montague Cobb, who was a collegiate boxing champion in two weight classes as well as a cross country racing champion, went on to get an MD and a Ph.D.  Allen Page, whom many consider to be the best defensive tackle ever, is the Chief justice of the Minnesota Supreme Court.  And what of  Charley ward, the Hiesman winning quarterback who was drafted by a professional baseball team, and now starts at point guard for the New York Knicks.  His “sports fixation” didn’t prevent him from finishing his degree requirements in three years.

Then there is the splendid example of Peter Westbrooks, whose skill with the Saber took him from the projects of Newark, New Jersey, to New York University, and who became the only American to medal in Olympic fencing.  Today he is a commodities broker in Manhattan and the founder of the Peter Westbrooks Foundation, which has become the center of American world class saber fencing.  In the recent World Cup match in New York, three of the four members of the all black American national team came out of the PFW.

All of the coaches in the PWF are former Olympians and educated successful men: black, white, and Hispanic.  Hence academic achievement is stressed along with athletic excellence.  I cannot imagine a better experience for the inner-city youths – male and female – than participation in the program at the PWF.  If there is any mistake that I have made in the raising of my sixteen year old twins, it is not starting them in the PWF’s fencing program sooner.  Westbrooks has said that he believes fencing saved his life.  His fascinating story can be read in his recently published autobiography. “Harnessing The Anger : The story Of An American Fencer.”

This is just a sampling of the many black athletes who have gone on to productive careers in other fields such as law, medicine, business, education, etc.  Nothing invites suspicion of Hoberman’s motives more than the fact that he makes no attempt to determine the percentage of black college and professional athletes who go on to other careers, or that he fails to examine the factors in their upbringing and socialization which might help explain why these athletes succeeded academically in spite of their “sports fixation.”  This glaring omission lends further credibility to Prof. Landry’s observation that Hoberman has skewed the evidence to support his polemic.  In the end, Hoberman is guilty of the very thing that he accuses Ishmael Reed of .  ”Reed, for example,” Hoberman argues, “who objects with good reason to the image of blacks as a ‘physical people,’ has little more to offer than a collection of inchoate resentments as opposed to a philosophy of action that might move the black image in a more cerebral direction.”

Since this “image” thing is mainly a problem with Hoberman’s white brethren, he should take up the cudgel and lead the fight against the exclusion of articulate Afro-Americans from the major forums of opinion instead of preaching to the converted.  I would argue that the reason for the paucity of black intellectual images is not due to a shortage of black intellectuals to fill this role – I could produce enough brain power from just among my friends to change that perception, whether the subject matter deals with the arts, politics or science – but is the result of a calculated effort to restrict their access to the media in favor of apolitical athletes and entertainers.  And while Hoberman acknowledges this fact, he offers no plan of action to correct it.  Which is a serious failing because, alas, it is a White problem.

At this moment in American history there are no regular black commentators on the major Sunday morning network television news shows, not even the sort of black men or women that whites regard as reasonable or safe.  Perhaps this is because they remember that the last time black intellectuals were given wide access to the media, back in the sixties, they helped to bring and end to American apartheid and set off a series of social upheavals that are still making waves i.e. feminism and women’s studies, resistance to military adventures abroad, black studies, ethnic studies, affirmative action, Gay Pride, etc.

On more than one occasion Hoberman expresses surprise that black intellectuals have not attacked the black community’s “sports fixation” as a “social pathology” which is the major cause of the vocational and educational problems of black men.  However, William Julius Wilson, who has studied the causes of black joblessness and poverty for twenty five years, and defined the myriad maladies it has given rise to in black life, dose not even mention sports as an important factor – just like Dubois and Woodson earlier.  And, anyway, for a white guy who teaches at the university of Texas, a state where a Hiesman trophy won by a semi-literate black running back would bring the university more money and recognition from the white folks of his state than if “darwin’s athletes” won the Pulitzer Prize, or a National Book Award, complaining about  black folks having a “sports fixation” is really a case of the pot calling the kettle black!

Are These People Suffering From A Sports Fixation?

U of Texas football Fans

Charity, and paternal advice, begins At home Mr Hoberman!

Furthermore, given the serious problems with alcohol abuse among the white students at the University of Texas – recently exposed in a HBO special – it’s all too obvious that many of these students would benefit from involvement in the rigorous training that excellence in sports demands.  But Hoberman can ignore these obvious facts, and gloss over the institutionalized racist practices which are increasingly pushing Afro-American men out of the job market, because they do nothing to support the black pathology arguments in which the professor appears to have an emotional investment..

Even a casual reading of “Darwins athletes” leaves one with the feeling that John Hoberman has a visceral disdain for the black male style.  When he writes about the braggadocio and swagger, the trash talkin – what the Afro-American linguist Geneva Smitherman calls jokin, jivin and signifyin – or the celebratory impromtu dances that often follow a great play, the biting tone of Hoberman’s criticism suggest a personal offense.  Where almost everyone else in the world -this writer included – marvels at the high style, amazing grace and prowess of the black athlete, Hoberman envisions a narcissistic display of black male “physicality” that masks feelings of intellectual inferiority.

In his paper about the ways basketball players and rappers influence each other entitled “It’s All About the Benjamins: Style, Cultural Identity, and the Modern-Day Nigga Athlete,” Professor Todd Boyd, of the  University of Southern California, argued that  “John Hoberman’s problem is that he is a player hater!”  Boyd explained that “player hater” is a term that rappers use to describe the mixture of jealousy and disdain which many middle and upper class people feel toward lower class black males who make a lot of money through entertainment or sports, but refuse to change their street oriented style.  “White America does not know what to do with these gifted young black men who have acquired wealth and fame but continue to maintain their ghetto connections.”

Interestingly enough, the black intellectuals whom Hoberman finds most helpful in pathologizing black athletic excellence are black conservatives whom rightwing whites, with whose aims Hoberman claims to disagree, routinely call upon to co-sign all sorts of anti-black claims, namely Glenn Lourey and Shelby Steele – although Lourey has recently gone on the op-ed page of the New York Times to protest the yes-man role assigned to black conservatives by their white counterparts.  Hoberman’s choice of black intellectual authority was duly noted by Angela Dillard, a historian of ideas at NYU, in her insightful paper : ”Hoberman’s Heroes : Black Conservative Intellectuals and the Post Liberal Critique of Race And Sport.”

Aside from whatever intellectual and ideological interest they hold in common however, I suspect that there is a bond beyond politics which has drawn these strange bedfellows together: They all lack the “physicality” associated with black men.  I cannot imagine the rotund professor Lourey playing any sport, and I’d bet my bottom dollar that professors Lourey, Hoberman and Steele are  secret  members of the Wallflower Order, those terminally awkard souls who suffer from two left feet and live in constant terror of the dance floor.  This probably explains the revenge of the nerds tone of this misguided tome.

Hence, at the end of the day, John Hoberman’s original sin was associating the good name of Brother Ralph Ellison with this dreary text.  For if it didn’t have that swing it didn’t mean a thing to Oklahoma Red, who was a killer diller on the dance floor.  Like Malcolm X  and Martin Luther King, Ellison took great pride in his dancing and talked trash about it too.  “Part of my pride in being what I am is that as a dancer, as a physical man,” says Ellison, “I bet you I can outdance, outriff most of these intellectuals who’re supposed to have come back…It’s a glorious thing to know the uses of the body and not to be afraid of it, but that has to be linked to the mind.”

In my experience, and that of every black American of my generation- and earlier ones – that I have quizzed about this issue, this has always been the attitude toward participation in sports among educators and other authority figures in the Afro-American community.  “Sports are fine but once you get somthing in your head not even the meanest cracker can take it away,” was common advice in my youth.  That’s why I feel no inhibition about saying candidly that anyone who claims black Americans did not value the mind is either an ignoramus or a charlatan!

When the Pulitzer Prize winning essayist, Alan McPherson, arrived at Ralph Ellison’s apartment to interview him in 1968, after Ellison was well into middle age mind you, he found him with “a pair of high powered binoculars close to his eyes.”  Ellison was sitting “by the window of his eighth floor Riverside Drive apartment looking down.  Across the street, in the long strip of green park which parallels the Hudson River, two black boys are playing basketball. ‘I watch them every afternoon,” he says, and offers the binoculars to me.”  Obviously Ellison, like most other people who have had the opportunity to see them perform, also got a big kick out of watching the artistry of the Afro-American athlete.  And we know from his comparison of Joe Louis with the best ballet dancers that Ellison was capable of viewing black athletes as artist – a position that Hoberman regards as an abomination when taken by other black intellectuals.

Frankly I don’t give a fig what Hoberman thinks about what is, or is not, art.  Anyone who is familiar with the history of western art knows that there is a never ending debate about what should be included in the canon of art.  The creation of the Whitney was an effort to seek formal recognition for the achievement of American artists, while the Museum of Modern Art and the Guggenhiem were the result of a raging debate about the value of modern art in general – a genre not considered important by the venerable Metropolitian Museum of Art.  Once upon a time Pablo Picasso, Henri Matisse, Marcel Duchamps and Salvadore Dali were widely viewed as talentless iconoclast. Charles Dickins, Mark Twain, and James Joyce were deemed unworthy of inclusion in the literary canon.  Johanne Sebastin Bach was viewed as a menace to sacred music by the princes of the German Church, and Jazz was once considered artless jungle music created by savage sensibilities.  Well, so much for authoritative opinions as to what can be considered art !


Muhammad Ali

A Fancy Dancer with Great Athletic Prowess


For grace and Beauty of movement: Barishnahov Had nothing on Ali!

 For my money, anyone who cannot appreciate the artistry of Pele on the Soccer field or Sir Garfield sobers on the cricket field, Muhammad Ali, Sugar Ray Robinson and Wilfredo Benitez in the boxing ring, Earl “The Pearl” Monroe, Magic Johnson, Julius Irving and Michael Jordon on the basketball court, Peter Westbrooks wielding his saber, and Lynn Swan, Gail Sayers and Warren Moon on the football field is automatically disqualified from any serious discourse on art.  I predict that history will judge them to be as narrow minded, insensitive to innovation, and short sighted as those who once dismissed Picasso, Twain and Bach.

Finally, since I don’t think I could say it better, I will defer to Prof. Lee D. Baker’s argument as to the real meaning of Hoberman’s obsession with black athletic excellence as socio/cultural pathology: ”Since the 1970’s poor people of color have been adversely affected by the transformation from a from a goods producing to a service producing economy.  The low wage/high-wage polarization, the relocation of industry, and the reduction of federal moneys to urban and rural areas has increased poverty, joblessness, and the welfare rolls, despite the passage of civil rights legislation and a booming economy.  People who see lack of personal responsibility, poor family values, or a fixation on sports, as root causes of entrenched poverty, soaring incarceration rates, and disparate per capita school expenditures, can easily substitute culture for biology.  In effect, they subtly shift the cause of racism from being black to acting black.”  Few white peddlers of black pathology theories have pulled off this bait and switch more adroitly than professor Hoberman.


Playthell Benjamin

Harlem New York